Nicole Novielli, Ph.D.
University of Bari “A. Moro”
Collaborative Development Group
Via Orabona, 4
70125 – Bari, Italy
Fax: +39 080 544 2031
Nicole Novielli is an Assistant Professor at the University of Bari, Italy. Her expertise is in Affective Computing. Since 2006, her research is on human factors and emotions in natural language interaction. She is a member of the COLLAB research group, whose research is in Software Engineering and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, with focus on collaborative software development. She is the Principal Investigator of the project ‘EmoQuest: Investigating the Role of Emotions in Online Question & Answer Sites’, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research under the program “SIR – Scientific Independence of young Researchers”.
- Research Interests
- Research Projects
- Education and Background
- Download my CV
- Affective Computing
- Human-Computer Interaction
- Natural Language Processing
- Social Media and Social Network Analysis
- Embodied Conversational Agents
- Natural Dialogue Simulation and Analysis
- Cognitive and Emotional User Modeling
- Senior Research assistant at the CDG, Collaborative Development Group, Department of Informatics, University of Bari.
- Research assistant at the Intelligent Interfaces research group, Department of Informatics, University of Bari.
- Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Bari (May 2010). Thesis on “Lexical Semantics of Dialogue Acts” (advisor dr. C. Strapparava)
- Master’s degree in ‘Computer Science – Knowldege and Software Engineering’ (Sept. 2006) – University of Bari, Italy (full marks and honours)
- Bachelor’s degree in ‘Computer Science’ (Jul. 2004) – University of Bari (full marks and honours)
- Visiting researcher at the University of Southern California (USA) – Institute for Creative Technologies (Jul-Sept 2007)
- Visiting researcher at the University of Aberdeen (UK) Department of Computing Science, NLG group (Oct 2007-Dec 2007)
- Visiting researcher at FBK-irst Trento (Italy) – HLT Division (several periods from Feb 2007 to Nov 2010)
I received my Ph.D. in Computer Science in May 2010 from the University of Bari discussing a thesis on ‘Lexical Semantics of Dialogue Acts’ (advisor Dr. Carlo Strapparava). The thesis project started in January 2007 as a follow-up of the research experience in the Humaine EU project, under the supervision of Prof. Fiorella de Rosis and has been conducted in cooperation with the Human-Language Technologies division of the Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst) in Trento. The work developed in the Ph.D. thesis falls under the fields of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Affective Computing.
In Sept. 2006 I received a Master’s degree in ‘Computer Science – Software and Knowledge Engineering’, University of Bari, Italy with full marks and honours (Advisor Prof. F. de Rosis, thesis title “Automatic Recognition of Affective States in Natural Language Dialogs”). The thesis was developed in cooperation with the Institut für Informatik, University of Erlangen (Dr. A. Batliner), in the scope of the Humaine EU project.
In Jul. 2004 I received my Bachelor’s degree in Computer Science, University of Bari (full marks and honours), Advisor Prof. F. de Rosis Thesis title “A Markup Language for Annotating Affective States in Persuasion Dialogs”. The thesis has been developed in the scope of the SOCRATES Program, at the University of Liverpool, Dept. of Computer Science, under the supervision of Dr. Floriana Grasso.
- EmoQuest (Principal Investigator) – Investigating the Role of Emotions in Online Question & Answer Sites
- Intersocial – Social Networking for Enhancing Regional SMEs
- Humaine – Human-Machine Interaction Network of Excellence on Emotions
- Anger and Its Direction in Collaborative Software Development (ICSE 2017 – NIER track) [Dataset] [Paper]
- SENTIPOLC (SENTIment POLarity Classification) of Italian Tweets [Dataset] [Paper]
- A. Y. 2016/17 – ‘Reti di Calcolatori + Laboratorio‘, ITPS, Corso B (M-Z).
- A. Y. 2016/17 – Agenti Intelligenti, Laurea Magistrale in Informatica.
- A. Y. 2015/16 – ‘Reti di Calcolatori + Laboratorio‘, Informatica, sede di Brindisi.
- A. Y. 2014/15 – ‘Reti di Calcolatori + Laboratorio‘, Informatica, sede di Brindisi.
- A.Y. 2012/13 – Laboratory sessions (teaching and practice) of of the course ‘Informatics’ (C programming), BSc in Physics, year 1, with exam responsibility.
- A.Y. 2011/12: Laboratory sessions of the course ‘Computer Architecture’. BSc in Informatics, year 2, University of Bari. Assistant lecturer, with exam responsibility.
- A.Y. 2010/11: ‘Web Programming’, BSc in Informatics, year 3, University of Bari. Main lecturer, with exam responsibility.
- A.Y. 2010/11: Laboratory sessions of the course of ‘Computer Networks and Digital Communication’. BSc in Informatics, year 2, University of Bari. Assistant lecturer, with exam responsibility.
- A.Y. 2009/10: Series of seminars on Natural Language Processing (Understanding and Generation) for the course ‘Agenti per la comunicazione digitale’ (Agents for digital communication), MSc in Informatics, year 1.
- A.Y. 2008/09: Laboratory sessions of the course of ‘Programming Language’. BSc in Informatics, year 2, University of Bari.
- A.Y. 2007/08: Series of seminars concerning Logical Reasoning, Surface Natural Language Realisation (with SimpleNLG) and Natural Language Understanding (LSA and Probabilistic Grammar approaches for recognition of communicative acts or affective cues spotting in the language), MSc in Informatics, year 1.
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, and N. Novielli. “The Role of Social Media in Affective Trust Building in Customer-Supplier Relationships.” Electronic Commerce Research, 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s10660-015-9194-3 , Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 453–482
- N. Novielli, C. Strapparava. “The Role of Affect Analysis in Dialogue Act Identification“. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 439-451, Oct.-Dec. 2013
- B. De Carolis, N. Novielli, “Recognizing Signals of Social Attitude in Interacting with Ambient Conversational Systems”. Journal of Multimodal Interfaces, vol. 8, p. 43-60, ISSN: 1783-7677, 2014
- N. Novielli, I. Mazzotta, B. De Carolis, and S. Pizzutilo. “Analysing user’s reactions in advice-giving dialogues with a socially intelligent ECA” In Cognitive Processing, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Issn: 1612-4782 pp. 1-11, Url: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10339-011-0420-1, Online October 2011
- B. De Carolis, S. Ferilli, N. Novielli, F. Leuzzi, F. Rotella “Social attitude recognition in multimodal interaction with a pedagogical agent.” JE-LKS. JOURNAL OF E-LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY, vol. 8, p. 141-151, ISSN: 1826-6223, 2012
- N. Novielli and C. Strapparava. “Exploring the Lexical Semantics of Dialogue Acts ”. Journal of Computational Linguistics and Applications, pp. 9–26, vol. 1, no. 1-2, ISSN 0976-0962, 2010.
- N. Novielli. “HMM modeling of user engagement in advice-giving dialogues” Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, vol. 3, num. 1-2, pp. 131-140, March 2010, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.
- N. Novielli, F. de Rosis and I. Mazzotta. “User Attitude Towards an Embodied Conversational Agent: Effects of the Interaction Mode” in Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 42, issue 9 (September, 2010), p. 2385-2397, Elsevier Science, ISSN: 0378-2166, 2010.
- N. Novielli. “Riconoscimento di opinioni e inferenza di belief dall’analisi di turni di dialogo in linguaggio naturale” In Cognito – Cahiers Romans de Sciences Cognitives, Vol 4, Num 1-2, ISSN: 1267-8015, Giugno 2009
- F. de Rosis, N. Novielli, V. Carofiglio, A. Cavalluzzi and B. De Carolis. “User Modeling And Adaptation In Health Promotion Dialogs With An Animated Character” International Journal of Biomedical Informatics, Special issue: Dialog systems for health communications, Elsevier (Ed.), ISSN: 1532-0464, Volume 39, Issue 5 (October 2006) pages 514-531, 2006
- N. Novielli, S. Marczak. “Social Network Analysis for Global Software Engineering: Exploring Developer Relationships from a Fine-Grained Perspective“, in ICGSE Workshops, Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering Workshops, pp. 47-48 DOI: 10.1109/ICGSEW.2013.14, Bari, Italy, August 26-29, 2013
- D. Gachechiladze, F. Lanubile, N. Novielli, A. Serebrenik “Anger and Its Direction in Collaborative Software Development.” In Proceedings of ICSE 2017, the IEEE/ACM 39th Interational Conference on Software Engineering: New Ideas and Emerging Results (NIER) Track , pp.11-14, 2017. Download the dataset [here]
- M. V. Mäntylä, N. Novielli, F. Lanubile, M. Claes, M. Kuutila “Bootstrapping a Lexicon for Emotional Arousal in Software Engineering.” In Proceedings of MSR 2017, IEEE/ACM 14th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories , pp. 198-202, 2017. Download the lexicon [here]
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, N. Novielli “A Preliminary Analysis on the Effects of Propensity to Trust in Distributed Software Development.” In Proc. of ICGSE 2017, the IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering , pp.56-60, 2017.
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, N. Novielli. “Moving to Stack Overflow: Best-Answer Prediction in Legacy Developer Forums.” In Proc. 10th Int’l Symposium on Empirical Softw. Eng. and Measurement (ESEM’16), Ciudad Real, Spain, Sept. 8-9, 2016.
N. Novielli, F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, G. Mininni, A. Taronna. The EmoQuest Project: Emotions in Q&A Sites”. In Proc. nternational Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2016), Bari, Italy, June 2016.
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, M.C. Marasciulo, N. Novielli. MSR Challenge: “Mining Successful Answers in Stack Overflow.” In Proc. 12th IEEE Working Conf. on Mining Software Repositories (MSR 2015), Florence, Italy, May 16-17, 2015.
- P. Basile, V. Basile, M. Nissim, N. Novielli “Deep Tweets: from Entity Linking to Sentiment Analysis” To appear in Proc. of the 2nd Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics (CLIC’15), Dec. 3-4, 2015, Trento, Italy. [Slides]
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, and N. Novielli, “Investigating the Effect of Social Media on Trust Building in Customer-Supplier Relationships,” 16th Int’l Conf. on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS’14), Lisbon, Portugal, Apr. 27-30, 2014.
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, N. Novielli. “A Preliminary Investigation of the Effect of Social Media on Affective Trust in Customer-Supplier Relationships“, in Proceedings of Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII 2013), Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
- B. De Carolis, S. Ferilli, N. Novielli. “Towards a Model for Recognising the Social Attitude in Natural Interaction with Embodied Agents”, In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems, CISIS 2012, ISBN 978-1-4673-1233-2, pp- 552-559, Palermo, Italy, July 4-6, 2012
- S. Ferilli, D. Cavone, B. De Carolis, N. Novielli. “A Layered Architecture for Situation Aware Home Environments”, in Volume 10: Workshop Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Environments, Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments Series, ISBN 978-1-60750-794-9, pp. 29-40, IE 2011, Nottingham, United Kingdom, July 25-28, IOS Press 2011
- P. Plantamura, M. Cives, N. Novielli. “Towards Supporting Effective Knowledge-sharing and Professional Skills in Computer-mediated Interaction ” in Proceedings of INTED 2012
- B. De Carolis, S. Ferilli, N. Novielli, F. Leuzzi, F. Rotella. “Recognising the Social Attitude in Natural Interaction with Pedagogical Agent”, in Proceedings of Didamatica 2012
- D. Cavone, B. De Carolis, S. Ferilli, N. Novielli. “A Multiagent System Supporting Situation Aware Interaction With A Smart Environment ”, in Proceedings of PECCS 2012, the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Embedded Computing and Communication Systems, ISBN 978-989-8565-00-6, pp. 67-72, Rome, Italy, 24-26 February, SciTePress 2012
- B. De Carolis, S. Ferilli, N. Novielli. “Recognizing the User Social Attitude in Multimodal Interaction in Smart Environments”, in Ambient Intelligence, Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference, AmI 2012, LNCS vol. 7683, pp. 240-255, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-34898-3_16, Pisa, Italy, November 13-15, 2012
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, S. Pizzutilo, A. Manta, M. Silvestri. “CORSAR – a Collaborative, Context-aware Recommender System in the Tourism Domain ”, in Proceedings of PECCS 2012, the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Embedded Computing and Communication Systems, ISBN 978-989-8565-00-6, pp. 245-248, Rome, Italy, 24-26 February, SciTePress 2012
- M. Cives, N. Novielli. “A Hypermedia Environment To Support Language Learning ” in Proceedings of the IADIS e-Society 2011, Avila, Spain, 10 to 13 March 2011
- P. Plantamura, N. Novielli, M. Cives, E. Gentile. “Towards Supporting Effective Interaction in a Web Forum ” in Proceedings of e-CASE & e-Tech 2011 Tokyo, January 18-20, 2011
- B. De Carolis, N. Novielli, I. Mazzotta and S. Pizzutilo. “A Social Robot For Facilitating Human Relations In Smart Environments, ” in the Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART), Rome, Italy, 28-30 January 2011
- P. Plantamura, N. Novielli, and E. Gentile. “Supporting Effective Interaction in E-Learining: Towards a Constructivist Approach ” in Proceedings of the International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace, ICELW 2011, June 8th-10th, New York, NY, USA, 2011
- N. Novielli, C. Strapparava. “Studying the Lexicon of Dialogue Acts ” in N. Calzolari, K. Choukri, B. Maegaard, J. Mariani, J. Odijk, S. Piperidis, M. Rosner & D. Tapias (Eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh conference on International Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’10), 2010
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, S. Pizzutilo. “Social robots and ECAs for accessing smart environments services ” in G. Santucci (Ed.): Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces AVI 2010 (Roma, Italy, May 26 – 28, 2010). G. Santucci (Ed.) AVI ’10. ACM, New York, NY, ISBN: 978-1-4503-0076-6, pages 275-278. 2010
- P. Plantamura, E. Gentile, N. Novielli. “Towards Supporting Effective Interaction in E-learning ” in Proceedings of the International Conference on E-Learning in the Workplace, ICELW 2010, June 9th-11th, New York, NY, USA, 2010
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novelli, V. Silvestri. “Using Common Sense For Improving Context-Aware Recommendations In The Tourism Domain ” in Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference WWW/INTERNET, ISBN: 978-972-8924-92-8, Rome, Italy, 19-22 November, 2009
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli. “NICA: Natural Interaction with a Caring Agent” In Ambient Intelligence, European Conference, AmI 2009, Salzburg, Austria, November 18-21, vol. 5859/2009, pages 159-163, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2009
- I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, B. De Carolis. “Are ECAs More Persuasive than Textual Messages?” In Z. Ruttkay, M. Kipp, A. Nijholt, H. Vilhjalmsson (Eds.): Intelligent Virtual Agents, 9th International Conference, IVA 2009, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 14-16, 2009, Springer LNCS 5773, pages 527-528, 2009
- V. Carofiglio, F. de Rosis, N. Novielli. “Cognitive Emotion Modeling In Natural Language Communication ” in Affective Information Processing, JianHua Tao (Ed), Springer London, pages 23-44, 2009
- B. De Carolis, N. Novielli, V. L. Plantamura, E. Gentile. “Generating comparative descriptions of places of interest in the tourism domain ” In L. D. Bergman, A. Tuzhilin and R. Burke, A. Felfernig and L. Schmidt-Thieme (Eds.): Proceedings of the 2009 ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, RecSys 2009, New York, NY, USA, October 23-25, pages 277-280, ISBN 978-1-60558-435-5, 2009
- N. Novielli, E. Gentile. “Modeling User Interpersonal Stances in Affective Dialogues with an ECA ” In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE’2009), Boston, Massachusetts, USA, July 1-3, Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School, ISBN 1-891706-24-1, pages 581-586 2009
- V. Carofiglio, B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, S. Pizzutilo. “Towards a Socially Intelligent ECA ” in Giovannella C., Santucci G. (Eds.) Proceedings of CHItaly ’09, Roma, Italy, pages 99-106, ISBN 978-88-88044-14-9, 2009
- F. de Rosis, A. Batliner, N. Novielli and S. Steidl. “’You are Sooo Cool, Valentina!’ Recognizing Social Attitude in Speech-Based Dialogues with an ECA ” In A. Paiva, R. Picard and R. Prada (Eds): Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Springer LNCS 4738, ISBN 978-3-540-74888-5, ISSN: 0302-9743 (Print) 1611-3349 (Online), pages 179-190, 2007
- I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, E. Silvestri and F. de Rosis. “ ‘O Francesca, ma che sei grulla?’. Emotions and irony in persuasion dialogues ” in Proceedings of the 10th Conference of AI*IA – Special Track on ‘AI for Expressive Media’. AI*IA 2007: Artificial Intelligence and Human-Oriented Computing, Rome, Springer LNCS 4733/2007, ISBN 978-3-540-74781-9, pages 602-613, 2007
- A. Martalò, N. Novielli, F. de Rosis. “Attitude display in dialogue patterns ” Proc. of AISB’08, Symp. on ‘Affective Language in Human and Machine’, ISBN: 1 902956 61 3, 2008.
- F. de Rosis and N. Novielli. “From Language to Thoughts: Inferring Opinions And Beliefs From Verbal Behavior ” In Proceedings of the Workshop on Mindful Environment, in the scope of AISB ’07, Newcastle, UK, pages 377-384, 2007
- G. Clarizio, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli and F. de Rosis. “Social Attitude Towards a Conversational Character” – In Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication. RO-MAN 2006. Hatfield, UK, pages 2-7. DOI 10.1109/ROMAN.2006.314386, ISBN: 1-4244-0564-5, 2006.
- F. de Rosis, A. Cavalluzzi, I. Mazzotta and N. Novielli. “Can Embodied Conversational Agents induce empathy in users? ” Proceedings of the Joint Symposium on Virtual Social Agents. In the scope of AISB’05, April 2005, pages 65-72. ISBN 1 902956 492, 2005.
- N. Novielli, F. Calefato, F. Lanubile. “The Challenges of Sentiment Detection in the Social Programmer Ecosystem” In Proc. 7th Int’l Workshop on Social Software Engineering (SSE’15), Sep. 1, 2015, Bergamo, Italy. [Slides]
- Pierpaolo Basile, Nicole Novielli (2015) UNIBA : Sentiment Analysis of English Tweets Combining Micro-blogging, Lexicon and Semantic Features In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015) 595-600. Association for Computational Linguistics.
- P. Basile, N. Novielli. UNIBA at EVALITA 2014-SENTIPOLC Task: Predicting tweet sentiment polarity combining micro-blogging, lexicon and semantic features. In proceedings of Evalita 2014 – The system ranked 1st in the subjectivity and polarity detection tasks [Slides]
- N. Novielli, F. Calefato, F. Lanubile. “Towards Discovering the Role of Emotions in Stack Overflow” – In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Social Software Engineering pp. 33-36, ACM 2014 [DOI] [Slides]
- F. Calefato, F. Lanubile, and N. Novielli, “Social Media and Trust Building in Virtual Teams: The Design of a Replicated Experiment.” 1st Int’l Workshop on Trust in Virtual Teams: Theory and Tools, San Antonio, TX, USA, 23 Feb. 2013.
- N. Novielli, C. Strapparava. “Dialogue Act Recognition and the Role of Affect ” In Alessandro Vinciarelli, Catherine Pelachaud, Roddy Cowie, Anton Nijholt (Eds.) Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction – Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium 2009, pages 1-8, ISSN:0929-0672, 2009
- N. Novielli, C. Strapparava. “Towards Unsupervised Recognition of Dialogue Acts ” in Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Companion Volume: Student Research Workshop and Doctoral Consortium, pages 84-89, 2009
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, V. Silvestri. “Using Common Sense in Providing Personalized Recommendations in the Tourism Domain ” In Proceedings of the Workshop on Context-Aware Recommender Systems (CARS 2009), in conjunction with the 3rd ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, New York, NY, USA – October 25, 2009.
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli. “NICA Cares for Me! Planning Socially Intelligent Reactions in a Caring Robot”? In Proceedings of WOA 2009, Decimo Workshop Nazionale “Dagli Oggetti agli Agenti”, Parma, 9-10 Luglio 2009
- N. Novielli, P. Carnevale and J. Gratch. “Cooperation Attitude In Negotiation Dialogs ” in Proceedings of the Worskhop on Corpora for Research on Emotion and Affect, in the scope of LREC2008, ISBN 2-9517408-4-0, 2008.
- A. Cavalluzzi, F. de Rosis, I. Mazzotta and N. Novielli. “Modeling the user attitude towards an ECA” In Sandra Carberry and Fiorella de Rosis (Ed.), Proc. Workshop on Adapting the Interaction Style to Affective Factors, at UM’05. Edinburgh, UK, July 2005.
- A. Cavalluzzi, G. Clarizio, B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta and N. Novielli. “Iterative Design of Embodied Conversational Agents With Wizard of Oz Studies ” Humaine: Proceedings of the WP6 Workshop, Paris, FR, March, 2005.
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, N. Novielli, S. Pizzutilo. “Planning Socially Intelligent Reactions in a Caring Agent”, in UMADR – User Modeling and Adaptation for Daily Routines, Springer HCI Series, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4778-7, 2013
- N. Novielli, C. Strapparava. “Dialogue Act Classification Exploiting Lexical Semantics ” In D. Perez-Marin and I. Pascual-Nieto (Eds): Conversational Agents and Natural Language Interaction: Techniques and Effective Practices, pp. 80-106, 2011
- B. De Carolis, I. Mazzotta, and N. Novielli. “Enhancing Conversational Access to Information through a Socially Intelligent Agent” In G. Armano, M. de Gemmis, G. Semeraro and E. Vargiu (Eds): Intelligent Information Access, Studies in Computational Intelligence, 2010, Vol. 301/2010, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-14000-6_1, 1-20, 2010.
- V. Carofiglio, F. de Rosis and N. Novielli. “Dynamic User Modeling in Health Promotion Dialogs ” In J. Tao, T. Tan and R. W. Picard (Eds): Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction, Springer LNCS 3784, ISBN 978-3-540-29621-8, ISSN: 0302-9743 (Print) 1611-3349 (Online), pages 723-730, 2005